Some thoughts about Human Knowledges, Web2.0 and Hypertope

These are just some preliminary sketchy thoughts.  I will keep adding and editing later.  Any comments are appreciated.

 * * *

I always get the feeling that theoretical knowledge is being increasingly overshadowed by information and fast-food pop-info-experience.  Aristotle himself foresaw that such a development a would cause a crisis in human knowledges, which in turn would have it’s impact on progressivist instincts of mankind.  Nietzsche, Heidegger and Feyerabend alike predicted this evolution in various ways.  It’s a crisis of knowledge – a pandemic that sweeps the planet and threatens the human knowledge and progressivist instincts for evolution with an imminent cataclysm. The requirements that late-modern capitalism dictates on knowledge as well as Warholian prophesy that in the future everyone will have 15 minutes of fame … namely the postmodernization of Pop culture are inherently related to what is happening to the way that knowledge spreads through quantity and pop, though not necessarily quality, style and insight.

 Historically there have been two models of knowledge: the Babylon and the Wiki. By Babylon I mean the hierarchicalist, exclusivist and top-down approach to knowledge… and it is also one that has been Sophist in it’s basic logic “you pay us money and we will give you knowledge”. What we see today is precisely the transmogrification of the Babylon model of knowledge in light of the historically specific material conditions that late-modern global capitalism dictates.Web2.0 has heralded a more “anarchistic” model of knowledge -- the Wiki.  A wiki is a type of content that anybody can contribute to and edit.  What is important is that with wiki it is more difficult and time-consuming to destroy than to create and preserve content.  In effect it works like a bee hive, and in a very rapid manner it has challenged the previously existing Babylonian models of knowledge wrapped in walls of exclusion, codes of practice and one that has been closely monitored and guarded.

Nevertheless, the Wiki model of knowledge does not escape what Foucault called the “episteme” – the discursive mode that defines a particular epoch -- a sort of “epistemological subconscious” of a given epoch. If you notice, the Wiki (and Wikipedia as it’s central example) cannot step outside of a kind of knowledge that is necessarily factual. Also the wiki always tries to come up with some kind of objectivity.  In effect, wiki simulates fact just as it simulates objectivism, and thus reifies and creates those as stable categories and necessary criteria that define knowledge.  In effect, the wiki participates in the constructions and reifications of the notions of objectivity and fact, as well as the notions that knowledge, in order to qualify as knowledge must necessarily be objective and factual – and that is precisely the episteme of our epoch.  In other words, a wiki cannot really expand into a kind of knowledge that is theoretical in its nature.  In other words, as it is wiki cannot challenge the episteme of the day: it heralds itself as a subversive outsider to the episteme, yet it participates in reification of the definitive categories of modern episteme.  

 Yet what IF given what was said above about Babylon and Wiki… a slightly modified model of content generation, accumulation and distribution and can be devised. And that’s why I’ve designed Hypertope as system that could be useful in other areas, but also leap into experimenting with the way that human knowledge is generated and evolves.  So researchers can use various Hypertope features according to their needs, but as the requirements of Google engines dictate their own criteria for effective content distribution, I think what we are gradually going to see is a new set of evolutions in academic content.Through Hypertope or not, I think what will gradual, but inevitably happen is that web2.0 will prompt many academics to rethink the basic academic practices. Like, for instance, what is a footnote if not an outdated formality and a “ritual” that is inherited from the Guttenberg era when the content was on a paper. What if referencing to other authors, to other books and to other articles could be done dynamically and through hyperlinks (just like on Wikipedia). What are the advantages of doing it this way?

A) when you see a footnote you generally trust the author, but then it takes time to go and to actually look up that reference in the library where that particular kind of argument is being made. With Hyperlinks one can do it instantly.

B) The Google Revolution was to move away from keyword searches to a type of search that gives priority to that content that has most a-links and back-links. Google searches prioritize pages that link to other pages (the logic being similar to the academic one: “if this piece of writing has a lot of links then it means that it is well researched and should be given priority” and similarly “if this piece of writing has many back-links that link to it, it must be the case that readers found it to be of certain importance and authority of subject matter”) , which is also why when one searches for something on Google its most likely that the first page that one will find will be an article in Wikipedia. 

Through the technologies that web2.0 allows a lot of possibilities open up.  It’s not just the footnote… Things like conferences, peer-reviews, calls-for-papers etc can now be rethought, revitalized and reinvigorated.  It is all very exciting as it allows for adding a whole new level of rigor and dynamism back into everyday academic practice.


The way that I have designed Hypertope is precisely with all these thoughts in mind. I want to provide academics with an easy way to output their pre-published research material and even daily research notes all in one place so that it is immediately seen by the audiences (which they can control through flexible privacy features) that the author intended it for, and so that constructive commenting is instantly in place the next morning.  If before time-zones were seen as a drawback, now they can be used for effective research workflow and motivation.  Structurally hypertope is designed in such a way that quality and style are prioritized over quantity.  It is possible for someone to write just few paragraphs of well thought text and instantly catch everyone’s attention and receive hundreds of recommendations (something that employers will immediately notice).

 Knowledge is always already a sight of politics (since it is always already a sight of power and powerknowledge).  And where there is politics there is always the field of War as well the field of Possibilities simultaneously.  Yet it can only present itself as a possibility when one ceases to resist it, and instead chooses to embrace it – embrace it and over-flood it with more of its kind.  Deleuze’s dialectic in Difference and Repetition comes to mind… I’ll need to think more about this and write here later.   

Thanks Garen

David Kaufman's picture

Garen, I wanted to say "thank you" for letting me know of this networking possibility.  Already got a couple of people in my department interested (a couple more in limbo) and I'm looking forward to the possibilities this format presents. 

You seem extremely knowledgeable and eloquent, by the way!  Take care.


David Kaufman

Dept. of Anthropology

University of Kansas

Lawrence, KS, USA

Thanks! It's a pleasure to

Garen Karapetian's picture

Thanks! It's a pleasure to see that one's creation is valued and is found useful.

I'd say what you see so far is only the beginning - we're constantly working on various new features - like for instance today we implemented the bookmarklet sharing functionality, and there is still loads to come. For now it is all mostly skeletal and we're going to wait until more people join in before we get rid of the unpopular features and implement new ones.

Not many people know about Hypertope simply because we only just launched it and we didn't do any marketing, advertisement or spamming, which is customary for websites of this kind. We just rely on our members - if they find Hypertope useful and if they see that it is in their long term interest that membership of hypertope grows, then they will confidently invite their academic friends and research colleagues.

To see the updates on your comments you don't need to visit each blog/notepad individually. Just click on "Track" on your profile page and it will display if there are any updates.




Jacob J. Walker's picture

I'm not sure I agree with all your premises of your logic about trends of the world, and history, but I do agree with the notion that digital media can change how reading happens. I think a transformation of footnotes is possible and maybe desirable, but I also believe that citing sources is more important than ever. I also think that it would be great to have the ability to "show/hide" details in knowledge explanation. I'm not sure if this would be widely used on the writers side, but for a reader, it would be great to be able to get more detail where you want it. Although, maybe hyperlinks can take care of this too.

I appreciate that you created hypertope. Having done a bit of programming, I know it is a large undertaking. I hope it catches on, both for its sake, and the fact that I'm betting on it by using it :-)

Beijing time on September

huangxiaoxian's picture

Beijing time on September 11, the British luxury brand Burberry uk outlet profit warning, expected ended March 31, 2013 pre-tax earnings for the market forecast the minimum and maximum levels. The coach handbags outlet news came out, the U.S. leading brand Michael Kors cash louis vuitton purses in the same industry as a shareholder of 2300 shares.Burberry CEO Angela Ahrendts said, "As we announced in July when challenging external environment, in this case, discount coach handbags our second quarter retail revenue growth relative to last year's historic high cardinality slight slowdown and we will be carefully controlled costs and take relevant measures in the implementation of the Burberry five policy while maintaining the company's short-term profitability. "

Burberry same-store sales is gradually slowing down. Notice that, in the past 10 weeks, sales rose only 6% of all the contribution from new stores, while same-store sales year-on-year growth, and recent weeks showed a slight decline.Burberry uk (BRBY.L) shares opened the day in London that fell 18%, record lows for the year, brokers have lowered its investment rating.

The news dragged down other fashion and luxury goods stocks, including company Swiss Richemont Financière Richemont fell 5.1%, to 60.85 Swiss francs ($ 64.34); Ferragamo Ferragamo fell 5.1 percent to 17.19 euros ($ 21.98); Moet Hennessy - Louis Vuitton louis vuitton outlet online LVMH fell 3.4 percent to 127.80 euros ($ 163.40); the step coach outlet online Baorui Group Mulberry fell 4.2 percent to 13.01 pounds ($ 20.81); the Paris Spring PPR fell 2.1 percent to 125.25 euros ($ 161.14), the Hong Kong-listed Prada also fell 6.3%. (All dollar figures are calculated when the current exchange rate)

Wave Diving also spread to the United States brand, bear the brunt of the well-known travel and accessories brand company louis vuitton purse outlet Tumi Holdings Inc, fell 3.2 percent to $ 24.10; Ralph Lauren Corp fell 2.6%, to $ 156.22, the coach outlet U.S. luxury retailer Saks Inc. fell 2.1% to $ 11.20; Coach Inc. fell coach outlet 1.8% to $ 61.48.

Manpower has become a

sara111's picture

Manpower has become a powerful tool to utilize available resources optimally Jobs in Pakistan and to carry-out organizational activities Labour Supply in Pakistan . An organization is known by its workers. manpower supply in Pakistan Hiring of perfect staff is requirement of every company to achieve economies of scale. manpower solution in Pakistan That’s why recruitment of employee has to be done very carefully. manpower in Pakistan The staffing agency plays an integral role to collect appropriate workers Jobs at Candor Recruitment according to open vacancies. manpower agencies in Pakistan First step of staffing company is to plan human resources by keeping in view the employer situation to make the process easy and unbiased. Candor Recruitment Group Pakistan It is compulsory for Recruitment Company to work according to the wish of its employers Candor Recruitment Agency Pakistan so that its workers can do better Latest Jobs in UAE to maximize output and growth of the company.

Information On How To Optimize Your Apple iphone

mengli's picture

An iphone is a great purchase should you be continually on the move, but it can be difficult to discover how to apply it to the greatest probably. If you find that you are feeling in this way you should look at the report that follows listed below, as it provides you with the ideas that you require.

You will find software on the phone that let you path where Air Max your mates are constantly. These software demand you and the buddy to just accept one another around the application, but may be well worth the download. Simply because in case your buddy or their phone at any time gets dropped, it or they are easy to find.

When you are typing character types on the iphone 4, one thing that you need to know of is you can switch to alternative heroes by retaining lower that figure switch. This really is valuable should you be seeking to include a highlight on the persona or sending Air Max Pas Cher a textual content in the different words.

When in your apple iphone email, it really is simple to help save a copy of your snapshot that you should see later on. Just contact the graphic for a couple seconds and it will surely be stored in your kept photographs. You can then entry it at any Nike Air Max moment if you would like look at it once again, submit it on the net or forwards it to some close friend.

To acquire awesome new ringtones for the iphone, there are several apps designed for free of charge where you could personalize a ringtone. Having a custom-made ringtone is neat which is something you can expect to very easily identify whenever your cell phone Basket Air Max rings. So, to help make your mobile phone exclusive to you personally, make your tailored ringtone.

You can find lengthen battery life of your iPhone if you make a number of changes. Remove are programs that you simply do not use, switch off the wireless network services in your contact you have no use for minimizing the level of illumination on your own display screen. This Air Max 2013 will guarantee your battery power can last somewhat much longer.

When you have been longing for any handy, accurate and end user-warm and friendly way to path your exercises plus your physical fitness progress, the iPhone offers the answer you have been trying to find. By installing one of the many highly-scored exercising-targeted software, you may kick-start off your diet program while keeping yourself liable along the way.

A great idea if you're considering purchasing an iphone would be to shop around and do your research before deciding on a program or even the apple iphone by itself. It may not be the very best concept to walk in to the apple company shop and choose one up impulsively due to the fact you'll shell out a lot more.

Whilst the iPhone acknowledges an amazing number of fingertip actions, you may possibly not Solde Air Max always be in the position to perform the more difficult maneuvers like pinching and swiping. It is possible to turn on the Assistive Effect solution to help make your iPhone right into a one-finger device. This will likely include an user interface symbol to the bottom part area of your respective display screen. Tapping it would mention a food list that will help you to use complicated actions with one finger.

As you now have check this out post you may have almost certainly realized that your cell phone is better still than you imagined. Now just take the information that you just learned about your iphone to make use of which means your iphone 4 can certainly make your Solde Air Max hectic daily life simpler than you had possibly envisioned before.

Make The Most Of Your Brand New IPhone With These Helpful Sugges

mengli's picture

Confess it. You don't realize how to use that apple iphone that you have been just recently provided. Nicely, you don't have to bother about that any further. The article under has lots of techniques for assisting you manage your new favorite bit of technology. Read on to look into the finest variety of phone suggestions on the internet.

Should you not want to be concerned about capitalization when you find yourself keying in a text message to your friend, you are able to Air Max switch on the car-capitalization function. This characteristic is found beneath Options->General->Keyboard which is the first option once you start this area. This will help help save lots of time and boost your grammar by way of messages.

In no way acquire programs which are not designed specifically for the phone. If you, you will be risking your phone's balance Air Max Pas Cher and functionality. Other programs may have computer viruses. Only use programs which have been especially approved for that iphone 4 to ensure that your phone can operate at its maximum productivity.

Tap and hold any one symbol on the apple iphone display and you will set out to discover them dance. After that you can transfer them all around, class them into folders and even remove those that you just do not want. This really is a easy way to help keep your monitors organized along with your applications prepared to use.

Conserve the battery lifestyle on your Iphone 4 by transforming off of Notices and Location Professional services until finally you should employ them. Your Phone will immediately achieve out and revise these functions routinely and make use of power supply during this process. Be familiar with the energy your Phone is Nike Air Max employing and you will have it when you want it.

If you obtain your iphone 4 drenched, the first thing to do would be to potential your telephone downward. Do not try and make cell Basket Air Max phone calls to see if the system functions. Tend not to try and turn it on when it is away. This may cause a power quick, which might create the difficulty more serious.

Use rice to help you your damp iphone 4. For those who have learned that your cell phone has got drinking water around Air Max 2013 it, the ideal solution is setting it within a travelling bag loaded with rice. Rice will draw out the h2o and soak up it, with any luck , permitting h2o to have your mobile phone in a manner that you may nonetheless apply it.

With the iPhone you are able to swiftly get images in your cell phone. When you glide to open the phone, struck the digital Solde Air Max camera app on the lock monitor and open it up as much as make use of the digital camera. This function makes it simple to easily take pictures and never neglect a storage.

Did you know that it is possible to swap the normal icons with other people which you would choose? All you have to do is opt for an icon that you do not use often, then click it to create it up. Simply click "revise" and you may watch your alternatives. Choose an icon you want and hold it downward, or just click and drag.

Given that you've achieved the conclusion with this report, you don't need to be fearful of your iphone 4 anymore. Be prepared to astonish your friends and relations whenever they experience your expertise on this amazing piece of equipment. Utilize what you've just acquired, and enjoy yourself Solde Air Max utilizing your new apple iphone.